1. Last few days to enroll for Delhi / Kolkata / Prayagraj workshop for Alternative therapies courses.     2. All the UGC courses are hold until next official notice.     


University Courses Application Form :-


 NAME OF COURSE : Bachelor of Science in Blood Banking
 DURATION :  3 Years
 FEES : First-Year - Rs. 20000
 EXAMINATION FEE Rs. 1500 per Semester/Year
 HOSTEL FEE Rs. 40000 Non AC Facility/Year
 HOSTEL FEE Rs. 60000 for AC Facility/Year
 Re-EXAMINATION FEE Rs 250 per Paper/Subject




 Terms of location, positions and planes  Cell and its organelles  Epithelium – Definition, classification, description with examples and functions.  Glands – Classification, description of Serous and Mucous glands with examples.  Basic tissues – Classification with examples.


 Cartilage – Different types with examples and Histology.  Bone – Classification, Names of bone cells, parts of Long bone, Microscopy of Compact bone, Names of all bones, Vertebral column, Intervertebral disc, Fontanelles of Fetal Skull.  Joints – Classification of Joints with examples , Synovial Joints (in detail for Medical Imaging Technology students)  Muscular system: Classification of Muscular tissue and histology.  Names of the muscles of the body.


(a) CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEM  Heart Size, Location, Chambers – Exterior & Interior – conducting System and Valves  Blood supply of heart  Systemic & Pulmonary circulation  Branches of Aorta, Common Carotid artery, Subclavian artery, Axillary artery, Brachial artery, Superficial Palmar arch, Femoral artery and Internal Iliac artery.  Peripheral pulse  Inferior Venacava, Portal vein and Portosystemic anastomosis.  Great Saphenous vein  Dural Venous Sinuses  Lymphatic System – Cisterna Chyli and Thoracic duct.  Names of regional lymphatics, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes in brief.

(b) RESPIRATORY SYSTEM  Parts of Respiratory System, Nose, Nasal Cavity, Larynx, Trachea, Lungs, Bronchopulmonary segments  Histology of Trachea, Lung and Pleura  Names of paranasal air sinuses


(a) GASTRO- INTESTINAL SYSTEM –  Parts of GIT, Oral cavity (Tongue, Tonsil, Dentition, Pharynx, Salivary glands, Waldeyer‘s ring)  Oesophagus, Stomach, Small & Large Intestine, Liver, Gall Bladder, Pancreas

(b) URINARY SYSTEM - –  Kidney, Ureter, Urinary bladder, Male & Female Urethra


(a) REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM – Parts of Male Reproductive system, Testis, Vas deferens, Epididymis, Prostate  Parts of Female Reproductive System, Uterus, Fallopian tubes, Ovary  Mammary gland (b) ENDOCRINE GLANDS  Names of all Endocrine glands in detail on Pituitary Gland, Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid gland and Suprarenal Gland.


NERVOUS SYSTEM – Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Mid brain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata, Spinal cord with spinal nerve  Meninges, Ventricles and Cerebrospinal fluid  Names of Basal nuclei  Blood Supply of Brain  Cranial Nerves


(a) EMBRYOLOGY  Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis  Ovulation, Fertilization  Fetal Circulation  Placenta

(b) COURSE SPECIFIC TOPICS  Skin  Eye  Arterial System and Venous Drainage System in detail



a. General physiology  Structure and functions of cell and cell organelles  Transport across cell membrane  Homeostasis: definition and feedback mechanisms

b. Hematology  Composition and function of blood and body fluids  Plasma proteins and their functions  RBC: morphology, production, functions and fate  Anemia: etiological & morphological classification  Immunity : Types, mechanism of immune response  Hemostasis and anticoagulants  Blood groups: Types, cross matching and clinical importance


Cardiovascular physiology  Functional anatomy  Conductive system of heart: origin, spread of cardiac impulse  Properties of cardiac muscle  ECG: leads, principles of normal recording. Normal waves and interpretations  Cardiac cycle  Heart sounds, Physiological basis of murmur  Cardiac output: definition, factors affecting, factors regulating and its measurement  Blood pressure: total pressure, lateral pressure, importance of different pressure, measurements, factors controlling BP  Shock : definition & types


Respiratory physiology  Functional anatomy  Mechanism of respiration  Lung volumes and capacities: definition, normal values, measurements and clinical importance  Transport of gases: oxygen and carbon dioxide  Control of respiration: neural and chemical regulation.  Dyspnoea, Asphyxia, cyanosis, periodic breathing  Hypoxia : definition and types


a. Gastro-intestinal physiology  GI secretions: saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice, liver & gall bladder  GI motility: deglutition, gastric motility and emptying, intestinal motility  GI hormones: Gerstein, Secretin, CCK – PZ, motilin, Inhibin

b. b. Renal physiology Nephrons: structure, types and functions  Juxtaglomerular apparatus  RBF: definition, normal values, factor affecting  GFR: definition, normal values factor affecting and factors regulating, measurement.  Renal handlings of solutes : Na+ , Cl- ,Glucose, water (diuretics, diuresis), H+, ammonia  Renin-angiotensin- aldosterone mechanism  Concentration of urine – countercurrent multiplier and countercurrent exchanger.  Micturition  Renal dialysis


a. Endocrine physiology  Pituitary gland: hormones secreted and their functions, applied: dwarfism, gigantism, Diabetes Insipitus.  Thyroid gland: hormones secreted and their functions, applied: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism  Parathyroid gland: hormones secreted and their functions  Adrenal gland: hormones secreted and their functions  Pancreas: hormones secreted and their functions, applied: Diabetes Mellitus

b. Reproductive physiology (5 + 2 hrs)  Male reproductive system: spermatogenesis, endocrine functions of testis  Female reproductive system: oogenesis, ovulation, functions of estrogen and progesterone.  Menstrual cycle: ovarian cycle, uterine cycle, hormonal changes, abnormalities of menstruation  Contraception


a. Nerve-Muscle physiology  Neurons: structure, types, properties, degeneration and regeneration  Neuromuscular junction: transmission of impulse and its clinical applications  Skeletal muscle: structure , muscle proteins, contraction & relaxation, types of contraction

b. Central nervous system  Organization of nervous system  Synapse: types, functions  CSF : functions  Cerebral cortex: Broca`s area and their functions  Cerebellum: lobes & function  Basal ganglia: nucleus & functions, Parkinsonism  Hypothalamus: functions

c. Special senses  Vision: Errors of refraction, visual pathway and effects of lesion  Hearing: functions of middle ear, Conductive deafness and nerve deafness.  Smell and taste: receptors and pathways


i) INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY  Biophysical aspects of Biochemistry: Theory of acids and bases, Ionization of acids, Dissociation of water, Hydrogen ion concentration and concept of pH, Dissociation of acids and bases, Basic concepts in Acidosis and Alkalosis (Respiratory and Metabolic)  Concept of buffering, Definition of buffers and Buffering Capacity, Chemical and Physiological buffers, Henderson Hasselbalch equation and pH – pK relationship,  Glass electrode and determination of pH, Acid Base titration.

ii) PROTEINS  Proteins: Chemistry, Classification, properties and biomedical importance of Proteins.  Hydrolytic products of proteins  Classification of Amino acids and important properties iii) ENZYMES  Definitions of Catalyst, Enzymes, Apoenzyme, Coenzyme, Holoenzyme, Cofactors and prosthetic group  Active site  Systematic classification of Enzymes  Factors influencing Enzyme kinetics  Enzyme units


i) CARBOHYDRATES  Carbohydrates: Chemistry, Classification, properties and biomedical importance of carbohydrates.

ii) NUCLEOPROTEINS  Purine and Pyrimidine bases  Ribose and Deoxy Ribose  Definition of Nucleosides and Nucleotides  Structure of DNA  Types of RNA  Biologically significant Nucleotides


LIPIDS • Definition of Fats and Oils • Classification of Lipids • Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty acids • Properties of Lipids • Biomedical importance of Lipids with special reference to PhosphoLipids, Glycolipids and Cholesterol.


ENGERY METABOLISM AND NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY  Calorific value, Respiratory Quotient, Resting Metabolic expenditure, Specific dynamic action  Energy requirements  Complex Carbohydrates and Role of Dietary fiber  Essential Fatty acids  Essential amino acids Positive and Negative Nitrogen balance  Protein Energy Malnutrition  Biochemical functions of Vitamins  Biochemical functions of major and trace elements.


CLINICAL CHEMISTRY  Serum Osmolality: Significance and measurement  Electrophoresis: Principles, Methodology and Diagnostic significance  Principles and applications of Partician Chromotography  Simple tests to identify Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins in biological fluids  Qualitative estimation of Glucose, Proteins, Cholesterol, Urea, Creatinine and Uric acid and their diagnostic significance (ii) ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY  Definition of Pollutants  Impact of Terrestrial, Water and air pollutants  Biopesticides: Chemistry, Metabolic Transformation in the living system and role in Chemical Pathology  Influence of Non-Biodegradable domestic utility items and its role in metabolic disorders  Carcinogens and mutagens: qualitative and molecular pathology involved in mutagenesis and carcino genesis  Plastics and its impacts on Society  Biomedical Waste and its management



GENERAL BACTERIOLOGY Historical introduction Classification of Microorganisms based on size, shape and structure Anatomy & Physiology of Bacteria : Nutrition, Growth Microscopy, staining techniques & Culture media, culture methods Sterilization (physical &chemical methods) Infection


IMMUNOLOGY Immune response Immunity Hypersensitivity,Autoimmunity Complement Antigen antibody reactions


SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY Introduction : Collection transport & processing of bacteriological clinical specimen in general Pyogeniccocci Spore baring bacilli Clostridium +Bacillus Enterobacteriaceae - E.coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella,Shigella Vibrio,Pseudomonas MYCOLOGY Introduction, classification of fungi, laboratory diagnosis ingeneral Fungi of medical importance-Opportunisticfungi


BASICS OF PARASITOLOGY Introduction to Parasitology, Classification, Protozoa-I -
Entamoebahistolytica Protozoa-II, Plasmodiumspp. Cestodes: general,T. solium&T.saginata,E.granulosus
Nematodes: Introduction &Classification - Intestinal - Ascaris,Ancylostorma,Strongyloides - TissueW.bancrofti


VIROLOGY Classification & General properties of Viruses, Virus Host interactions & Lab diagnosis in
general DNA Viruses : Pox viruses & Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses Hepatitis virus,HIV Rabies , Polio, Arbo
viruses common in India – Dengue, Chickenkuniya , Japanese encephalitis,KFD


HOSPITAL INFECTION AND CONTROL Causative agents and methods of transmission Systematic
investigation of hospital infection Prevention and control of Hospital infections Environmental Hazards
resulting from biomedical waste and preventive measures.
GENERAL PATHOLOGY Basic Concepts in Cellular Adaptions  Cell injury and Cell death  Over view of
Cellular adaption Basic Principles in Inflammatory Process  General features of Acute and Chronic
inflammation repair.  NEOPLASIA  Definition of Neoplasia  Differences between Benign and
Malignant tumors  Nomenclature
HAEMATOLOGY Structure and functions of Blood cells  Objective use ofanticoagulants  Mechanisms
of Haemostasis  Tests to monitor Coagulation  Blood Grouping and Blood Bank (Basic aspects on Blood
Components)  Basic concepts in Anemia  Basic Concepts of Leukemia
management from perspectives of Pathology  Environment and Disease – Smoking hazards, Asbestosis
and Silicosis Occupational Exposure
CLINICAL PATHOLOGY  Collection, transport, preservation and processing of Clinical Specimen  Clinical
Pathology of specialized Body Fluids (CSF), Synovial fluid, Pleural Fluid  Urine Examination(Urinalysis)
OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY  Rheumatic Heart Disease ineffective endocarditic,
atherosclerosis, IHD – Basic Concepts.  Lungs : Pneumonia, COPD, Asthma, ARDS – Basic Concepts 
Gastrointestinal tract – Peptic Ulcer, Carcinoma Stomach, Carcinoma Colon –Basic Concepts.  Liver:
Hepatitis, Cirrhosis, Gall Bladder – basic Concepts.  BrainTumour.  Kidney – Renal Calculi,
Hydronephrosis, renal Tumor – Basic Concepts.  FGT – Leiomyoma, Endometrial hyperplasia,
Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer –Basic Concepts.  FGT – Ovarian Tumor classifications – Basic
Concepts.  Breast – Benign and Malignant tumors – Basic Concepts  Bone Tumors – Basic Concepts
a) Introduction to blood bank  Overview History of Transfusion Medicine  Identify and relate the
important features of the history of transfusion medicine  Outline the scientific benchmarks in the
evolution of transfusion medicine  Explain how specific innovations affected transfusion medicine
practice  Recent trends in the practice of transfusion medicine  History of development Transfusion
Medicine in India
b) Organization of blood bank services  Regional blood transfusion centre  Blood banks and blood
storage centers, Blood Bank premises and infrastructure  Mandatory Technical Staffing pattern of
blood bank and role, functions and responsibility of each Technical staff.  Technical requirements:
Accommodation and environmental conditions  Blood bank management system  Regulations for
blood bank operation, Drugs and cosmetics Law  National blood policy, standards in Blood Banking,
licensing procedures, ethical aspects of blood transfusion
a) Statutory regulators of Blood banking in India  Drug controller of India, State, Director General
Health services & NACO and other government bodies.  Indian Drugs and cosmetic act and rules
1945 pertaining to Blood bank  Indian & other Pharmacopeia pertaining to blood products 
Licensing norms, Inspections and Compliance  Terminologies used in blood banking including blood
donation.  Legal aspects related to blood bank and role of NGO
b) Instruments, equipment‘s and Record maintenance in blood bank  List of instruments and their
uses , general care and protocol of use, quality control  General care of instruments (Weights,
Volume. Specific gravity, Conversion of weight to volume, Volume dilutions, Weight dilutions etc)
c)  Principles of general care of instruments, methodology of cleaning of glassware  Various records
in blood bank , method of record maintenance  Spill management  Work flow in blood bank :
Criteria for blood donation  Procedure of blood donation  Blood collection and its storage 
Component separation and its storage  Blood serological testing  Issuing of blood components 
Transfusion reactions and its lab investigations  Preservation& storage of blood for transfusion and
storage effects  Different blood components- their method of preparation, temperature of storage
and shelf life.  Reporting Formats and statistics
a) Introduction, Basic Blood collection and anticoagulants  Preparation of donor, screening and
collection of blood.  Various methods of blood collection  Types of blood samples  Methods of
collection in various age groups  Precaution to be followed in collecting blood samples  Methods of
disposing both expiry, infected samples and sharps used  Different vacutainers with color codes 
Advantages of Vacutainers  Anticoagulants used in blood bank  Various anticoagulants used in
hematology tests  Universal anticoagulants in hematology lab  Mechanism and uses of various
b) Blood bank techniques  Principals involved in Blood grouping. ABO system and the methods used.
Factors influencing the results of blood grouping, Rh system.  Rh antigen. Principles and methods used
 Other blood grouping systems  Interpretation of blood grouping by various methods  Cross
matching- Principles involved and the methods used  Compatibility test - Principles involved and the
methods used  Direct and indirect Coomb‘s test – Principles involved and the methods used.
C) Serological screening and transfusion reaction  Screening of transfusion transmitted infection
 Discarding of samples  Knowledge about types of blood transfusion reactions
a) Basic steps in Blood components preparation &labeling.  Different types of blood components 
Composition- volume, cellular, plasma and clotting factor content  Storage of individual blood
components.  Equipments used for component preparation.  Care and precautions to be taken
during whole blood collection and before component preparation.  Programming for component
preparation.  PRP & Buffy coat methods.  Other methods of component preparation.
b) Preparation of Components  Preparation of red cell concentrate  Fresh Frozen plasma  Other
plasma products, platelet concentrates  Cryoprecipitate, washed red cells  Plasma Fractionation:
Principles, manufacturing of different plasma derivatives
c) Storage conditions for components and ―Storage lesions‖  Metabolic changes in blood
components during storage  Release of cytokine during storage.  Component Testing, Labeling,
Transportation and storage of blood components.  Inventory management and maintenance of
bloodstock  Storage lesions.
d) Modified blood components:  Preparation of leuko-reduced blood products, Leukocyte filters,
Irradiated blood components  Blood substitutes, Washed /plasma reduced blood components,
frozen red cells.  Specialized blood components –CMV free and HLA matched & Blood
e) substitutes  Recombinant clotting & hematopoietic growth factor
a)Quality control of whole blood and components Quality control procedures, measures, sterility tests
and recording for  Whole blood  PRBC  Modified PRBC
 FFP and Plasma products  Platelet components  Plasma fractionation products & Pathogen
inactivation method
b) Laboratory Management and Planning  Reception and recording of specimen, cataloguing and
indexing maintenance of laboratory records  working and maintenance of the following Incubators,
Refrigerators, Water baths, Ovens, Steamers, Autoclaves, Inspissator, Centrifuges, Vacuum Pumps,
Water Steel.  Cleaning and sterilization of syringes and needles and glassware‘s  Care and use of
microscope. Dark ground illumination, inverted phase microscope and fluorescence microscopy 
General principles of Hematology techniques collection, fixation, processing & routine staining. 
Estimation of Haemoglobin, TLC, DLC, Peripherals mear  Automatic cell counter  General principles of
Blood Bank techniques, antigen, antibody, ABO & Rh system  Maintenance and medico legal
importance of records and specimens
Donor Motivation  Donor Motivation, Motivational Techniques, Social Marketing, Preparation of IEC
Materials.  Motivating factors for donation  Types of blood donors, Donor selection, Donor
questionnaire and interview: Eligibility and deferral criteria, medical interview and medical examination
 Pre donation Investigations -hemoglobin estimation & Blood grouping, Equipment‘s & Reagents used
in screening, investigations.  Managing rejected blood donors, technique for conversion of first time
donor into regular voluntary donor, donor felicitation. Donor recruitment & Retention.  Pre donation &
Post donation donor counselling.  Medico-legal Aspects, NACO & DGHS guidelines.  Right to
information, Donor Consent, reports, Leave letters, certificates
Blood Donation requisites:  Blood collection room equipment, their principles, and use  Emergency
medicines, Pre-donation counselling, Solutions &Metho for Preparing Phlebotomy Site  Test Tube
Samples: Method of accurately relating product to donor sample, post donation care.  Mandatory
emergency medicines to be made available and their uses.  Donor reactions and their management. 
Screening of blood units for mandatory tests, discarding infected units, post donation counselling.
Blood Donation drive:  Awareness programs prior to blood donation drive, Camp site, staff
requirement, management of camp, screening of donors  Transportation of blood units from camp site
to blood bank.
Types of blood bags available, collection, storage and labeling  Different types of Blood Collection
including Autologous blood donation and Therapeutic Phlebotomy  Preservation of donated blood,
blood preservation solutions and Additive solutions.  Blood donation and Bloods alvaging  Criteria for
Autologous blood donation  Autologous blood donation advantages &disadvantages  Different types
of Autologous blood donation.  Indications and procedure of therapeutic phlebotomy.
Introduction to Immunology  Cells of immune system and their role: Phagocytic cells, Antigen presenting
cells, T cells, T cell subsets, B cells, CD Markers.  Antigens: Immunogen, allo-antigen, soluble antigen, Red
cellantigen,  Epitopes immunoglobulins, characteristics of immunoglobulins,  Complement System, HLA
system. Antibodies:  Polyclonal anti bodies, development of antibodies, structure of Monoclonal
antibodies  Hybridoma technology,  Human monoclonal antibodies.  Antigen antibody reaction:
Antigen concentration, antibody concentration, enhancing media, other factors influencing antigen
antibody reaction.
Basic Principles of Immuno-hematology  Application of Blood groups: -Population Genetics, Forensic
medicine, Transfusion medicine  ABO Blood of Group Systems: History, Genetics, ABH antigens 
Biochemical Synthesis of blood group antigens  Antigenic sites, weaker variants, Bombay Phenotype,
ABO antibodies  Red cell serology techniques, their advantages and disadvantages  Cell and serum
grouping, detection of weak A and Bantigens  Secretor status.  Trouble shooting in red cell serology. 
ABO incompatibility.
Rh Blood Group System:  History, Genetics, Molecular Genetics, Nature of RhAntigens  Partial D, Weak
D, other variants of Rh, RhNull  Rh antibodies factors influencing Rh immunization, Functional role of Rh
antigens  Other Blood Group Systems: Lewis, P, Ii, MNSs, Kell, Duffy, Celano,In  Private antigens, Public
antigens  Principles of Direct and indirect antiglobulin test technique  Weak Rh DTyping  Antenatal
Serology, Hemolytic disease of the newborn due to ABO and RhIn compatibility
Introduction to pretransfusion testing  Pre transfusion testing - Patient specimen labelling requirements,
Patient / component identification requirements  Different methods of cross matching, Saline Cross
match, Saline replacement for rouleaux, enzyme technique, albumins technique  Anti-globul in crossmatching  Cross matching in special circumstances, emergency cross matching, electronic cross matching
 Abbreviation of compatibility testing in emergency  Advanced technique including Micro plate and Gel
card techniques
Transfusion Transmitted Diseases and Bio hazardous Waste Management –Theory Objective To teach
students the pathology, epidemiology of blood transfusion transmitted infections and to train students in
laboratory diagnosis and quality assurance in screening for diseases transmitted through blood
transfusion. To teach basic principles proper disposal of biomedical waste generated in the blood bank
laboratory. Study of major transfusion transmitted infection. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Hepatitis
B,C Human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2, HTLV viruses I and II West Nile virus(WNV). Implication of
the other viral diseases for blood transfusions: Emerging infections like Epstein-Barr virus,
cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Transfusion associated infectious
organisms Malaria &others. Syphilis and other pathogens.
Lab diagnosis of Malaria and syphilis by various methods and principles of each test. Interpretation of nonTreponemal and Treponemal antibody tests used to diagnosesy philis. Transfusion associated infections
with other bacterial / fungal / protozoal infections. ELISA test Various types of ELISA Laboratory screening
tests for TTI, Spot tests, Limitation of various tests Quarantine and recipient tracing, procedures for
lookback and recipient follow-up Compare & contrast various methodologies such as ELISA, rapid
&Chemilumine scence used in screening of transfusion transmitted infections. National policy on TTI
testing of blood donors. Automation in Blood donor screening Chemiluminence, NAT, Western Blot
Automation in blood donor TTI screening. Confirmatory tests for TTI testing. Demonstrate proficiency in
the preparation and use of internal control in transfusion transmitted infection screening. Quality control
and documentation. Proficiency testing – IQAS & EQAS, Pathogen reduction, Cellular components and
plasma components. Biomedical Waste management Discard of Blood& components-infected and
expired. Documentation of records. Universal precautions –Bio waste management. Disposal of Reactive
Bags and samples. Demonstrate proficiency in proper disposal of bio hazardous material a per
recommended standards. Post exposure prophylaxis
General aspects of Hematology  Origin, development, morphology, maturation and function of blood
cells  Fate and nomenclature of blood cell
RBC, WBC and Platelets Parameters  Principles of counting chambers used in hematology  Different
methods of evaluation of Total RBC count including preparation, advantages and disadvantages of
various diluting fluids for RBC count.  Hemoglobinometry: Principles and methods of quantitating Hb.
Concentration of blood including knowledge of errors and quality control in various method.  Abnormal
hemoglobin and its investigation.  Principles and methods of determining PCV calculation and
interpretation of red cellindices  ESR: Introduction, factors affecting ESR, principles and methods of
determining ESR, conditions increasing and decreasing of ESR.  Micro ESR Introduction, development of
WBC  Various method of estimation of total WBC count  Preparation of various diluting fluids and its
mechanism of action  Advantages and disadvantages of various WBC diluting fluids  Absolute
Neutrophil count (Arrneth count)  Absolute eosinophil count  Introduction , development of platelets
 Various method of estimation of total platelet count  Preparation of various diluting fluids and its
mechanism of action  Advantages and disadvantages of various platelet diluting fluids
Peripheral smear – Preparation, Staining, Counting and Interpretation  Preparation of peripheral smear,
thin smear, thicksmear,  Buffy coat smear and wet preparation  Bone marrow smear- imprint and
crush preparation  Principle and methods of staining of blood smears and bone marrows mears. 
Supravital stains and Perl‘s iron staining of bone marrow  Romanowsky stains - Preparation, advantages
and disadvantages.  Trouble shooting in smears and stains  Description of morphology of normal and
abnormal RBC  Calculation of platelet and Total WBC count from PS  Blood differential WBC counting
both normal and abnormal counts  Identification of RBC, WBC, Platelet disorders from PS 
Identification of various RBC inclusion bodies  Identification of blood Parasites  Advantages and
disadvantages, uses and mechanism of cell counting,  Quality control in manual cell counts  Errors in
sampling, mixing, diluting and counting  Bone marrow aspiration indication, methods, procedure 
Bone marrow smear – Imprint and crush preparation
RBC, WBC and Platelet disorders  Anaemia – definition, etiology classification and laboratory diagnosis.
 Nutritional anemia workup  Other RBC disorders  Hemolytic anemia workup  Hemolytic anaemia:
Definition, causatives, laboratory investigations. Autohemolysis, acid hemolysis  Methods of
identification of abnormal hemoglobin including spectroscopy, Hb Electrophoresis, Principles of Alkali
denaturation Test, Sickle cell preparation, Fetal Hb identification, Nile blue sulphate test, Osmotic
fragilitytest  Various benign leucocyte reaction – Leukocytosis. Neutrophilia, Eosinophilia,
Lymphocytosis, monocytosis, basophilia andleucopenias  Leukemoidreaction  Leukemias – definition,
causes, classification, detection of leukemia. Total leucocyte count in leukemias. Multiplemyeloma. 
Cytochemical stains inLeukaemia  Blood Coagulation and disorders of hemostasis. Principles and
methods of assessment of coagulation. BT, CT, Prothrombin time, partial thromboplastintime, 
Thromboplastin regenerationtime  Thrombocytopenia, thrombocythemias, platelet function test,
platelet count. Clot retraction test. Platelet factor III Test.
Automation, Special Procedures  Principles of autoanalyser  Interpretation of both normal and
abnormal values in analyser  Cleaning and maintainence ofanalyser  Preparing reagent and cleaning of
spillover of samples, chemicals and reagents  Critical value alert  Interpretation of flagging in analyser
 LE cell – definition, morphology causative agents. Various methods of demonstrating LE cells 
Introduction to Immuno phenotyping  Principles, samples and procedures of Flow cytometry 
Principles, samples and procedures of PCR
Vb: Urine, Semen and Other Body fluids Examination  Collection, types of samples, preservatives and
labeling  Physical and chemical tests including strip test  Urine sediment preparation and microscopy
examination – principles, interpretation and troubleshooting  Receiving Various Types of Fluids 
Labeling and Different Methods of Fixation  Gross Examination  Wet Preparation – Indication,
Methods and Cell counts  Centrifugation Technique Both Conventional and Cytocentrifugation Semen
collecting Procedures  Counseling, collection of sample  Physical, chemical, Microscopic examination 
Special procedure  Counts
VC: Quality control in hematology  Quality control samples and its interpretation  EQAS programme in
hematology  Documentation and audit  Hospital accreditation System  Discarding of both infected
and expired samples  Quality control check  Documentation and maintenance of records  Biomedical
waste disposable.
Interpretation of ABO grouping Solving ABO and Rh grouping discrepancies Subgroups of ABO
Polyagglutination. Other Blood Group Systems Lewis, P, Ii, MNSs, Kell, Duffy, Celano, In, Private antigens
and Public antigens, Antibody identification Use of enzymes in blood banking, potentiators and special
reagent in blood grouping and cross matching, Investigation of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
Antibody screening Antibody identification- 11 cell & extended cellpanel. Detection of blood group
antibodies, identification of their Specificity, Clinical significance of antibody detection, Differentiation
between auto and allo-antibodies Gel Technology Antenatal Serology Rh Incompatibility and other alloantibodies Kleihauertest Erythrocyte resetting test and other tests.
Preparation Red Cell panels Elution & Adsorption Procedures. Reagents used in advanced
immunohematology. Cryopreservation & thawing techniques of cell Panels and Red blood cells
Newer techniques Gel technology and Plate technology, Virtual Cross match and Molecular blood
grouping Automaton in blood grouping Saliva testing
Advanced Immunology General principles of Immunology and Complement System HLA SYSTEM HLA
antigens HLA antibodies HLA Serology HLA phenotyping and Various Histocompatibility matching
procedures-CDC,ELISA, chemiluminescence and Flow cytometry methods Molecular methods Molecular
methods in Immunology. Establishment of HLA lab for transplantation of organs.
Management of Blood Bank Issue Counter  Criteria for acceptance of requisition form.  Inspection
and selection of blood component.  Plan for transfusion.  Criteria for issue of blood and blood
Indications for Transfusion Therapy  Use red cell components in of different types of anemia,  Use of
blood components in bleeding patient,  Neonatal transfusion.  Transfusion practices in surgery, 
Selection of units for cross matching,  Transfusion therapy for oncology and Trans plantation patients.
 Transfusion indications for Red blood cells, Platelets, Plasma / cryoprecipitate, Granulocytes.  Use of
returned unused blood components from different blood bank  Acceptance of blood components from
other recognised Blood bank  Pre Transfusion strategies in special cases regarding samples, techniques
and protocols in special patients circumstances -Paediatric / neonatal, Obstetric including intra uterine,
cardiac surgery with CPB.  Burns & Trauma patients.  MSBOS (maximal surgical blood order schedule)
 Immune haemolytic anaemia (warm and coldag glutinins)
Complications of Transfusion therapy  Blood administration, monitoring, use of transfusion filters, post
transfusion care.  Identifying type and grade of transfusion reaction.  Bedside management  Fetal and
neonatal thrombocytopenia.  Granulocyte transfusion.  Platelet refractoriness Recognition and
evaluation.  Calculation of CCI and platelet recovery
Introduction to Special Transfusion therapies  Intrauterine transfusions.  Cardiac surgeries.  Massive
transfusion protocols.  Switching ABO / Rhtypes.
Transfusion reactions- diagnosis and reporting:  Classification, Pathophysiology, Investigations,
diagnosis and reporting.  Hemovigilance  Haemolytic transfusion reaction - immediate and delayed; 
Immune and non-immune reaction patho physiology.  Clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory
investigation for HTR, Transfusion reaction works up.  Non- haemolytic transfusion reactions
Immediate and delayed  Bacterial contamination, febrile reaction, Allergic reaction, Transfusion related
lung injury.  PTP, Allo immunization, Iron overload, Graft versus host disease.  Infectious
complications: Bacterial, parasitic, viral, prions.  Current risk & Prevention strategies of transfusion
reactions and rational use of blood components BLOOD BANK EQUIPMENTS  General Lab equipments 
Colorimeters & Elisa readers, washers, Thermometers  Weighing devices  Refrigerators  Platelet
agitators &Incubators  Deep freezers  Thawing bath &devices  Plasma expressers  Sterile connecting
devices  Apheres is equipment‘s  Computers  Software &Hardware  Temperature regulating devices
(Incubators, Hot air oven)  Autoclaves  Cell washers  HIS  Automation platforms  Blood serology:
Various reagents & Kits ordering, specifications & Documentation  Ordering, specifications, procuring
and documentation of TTI kits and all reagents  Ordering, procuring and documentation of all
equipments  Bio safety cabinets  Miscellaneous equipments
Quality control System  Quality control of empty blood bags.  Quality control of different blood bank
Components  Sterility test on component.  Quality control of blood bags  Quality Assurance Hb & PCV
 Quality control of blood group ingreagents  QC of anti-human globulin reagent, bovine albumin,
Normal saline, Antisera etc.  QC of TTI test kits – Elisa &Rapid
Equipment‘s  Quality control of all equipment‘s,  Calibration, validation and maintenance of blood
bank equipment.  QC of blood bank techniques Quality Assurance - Temperature Records, Sterility
Testing.  Internal QC and External QC
Quality parameters of various blood components  Quality Assurance blood components – red cells and
FFP  Cryoprecipitate, platelets, Red Cell and WBC contamination.  Calibration, validation and
maintenance of blood bank equipment  QC of blood bank technique.
Quality policy, quality manual, Internal and external audit and process control  Documents, Registers,
Records & Formats to be kept.  Licensing, Drug authorities‘ inspection and compliance.  Registers
forms, Documentation and Standard operating procedures (SOP or GMP),  Blood bank management
system,  Regulations for blood bank operation, Drugs and cosmetics Law,  National blood policy,
standards in Blood Banking, licensing procedures, ethical aspects of blood transfusion.  Recruitment
and training of blood bank personnel,  Proficiency testing.  Hospital Transfusion Committee.  Blood
Bank Accreditation- . ISBT, NABL, NABH standards and accreditation.  Legal and ethical aspects,
Regulatory Acts, Bio hazard Waste Disposal Act, National blood policy
General aspects of apheresis and its products Apheresis procedures Apheresis products Preparation of
multiple products on cell separators, Maintenance of cell separator equipment. Preparation of multiple
products on Cells separators -Platelet apheresis, Plasmapheresis (Single donor &TPE), Leukapheresis
(Granulocyte & Peripheral hematopoietic blood stem)
Recent Advances in Blood Banking Latest trends in blood banking- Donor screening, retention, Blood
collections, components etc. Recent advances in Automation of Blood Banking. Recent advances in
apheresis procedures Nucleic Acid Testing. Stem Cells & Cord stem cell banking. Artificial blood
Stem cell Preparation and Banking Stem cell- Cord blood, Peripheral blood Hematopoietic stem cell
Stem cell banking and application. Procedures of collection of stem cell and calculation of stem cell
collected. Quality control of products. Cryopreservation, maintenance, QC and thawing procedures in
stem cell banking. Regenerative medicine. Ethical guidelines Concept of Bio banking 30 157 P

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