NAME OF COURSE :
Diploma in Physiotherapy
QUALIFICATIONS / ELIGIBILITY :
|10 + 2 (PCB)|
|DURATION :||2 Years|
First Year - Rs.20000
Second Year - Rs. 20000
Rs. 1500 per Semester/Year
|HOSTEL FEE||Rs. 40000 Non AC Facility/Year|
|HOSTEL FEE||Rs. 60000 for AC Facility/Year|
|RE-EXAMINATION FEE||Rs. 250 per Paper/Subject|
1. Identification and description of all anatomical structures
2. The learning of Anatomy is by demonstration only through dissected parts, slides, models, charts, etc.
3. Demonstration of dissected parts (upper extremity, lower extremity, thoracic & abdominal viscera, face and brain).
4. Demonstration of skeleton- articulated and disarticulated.
5. During the training more emphasis will be given on the study of bones, muscles, joints, nerve supply of the limbs and arteries of limbs.
6. Surface anatomy: -surface land mark-bony, muscular and ligamentous. -surface anatomy of major nerves, arteries of the limbs.
7. Points of palpation of nerves and arteries
|3.Cardiovascular system||4.Cardiovascular system|
|5.Respiratory System||6.Nerve Muscle Physiology|
|7.Nervous system||8.Renal System|
|9.Endocrinology||10.Male & female reproductive system|
|1. Examination of pulse, B.P., Respiratory rate.|
|3. Spirometery to measure various lung capacities & volumes, Respiratory rate, Tidal volume, IRV, IC, ERV, EC, residual volume on Spirometery.|
|4. Estimate of Haemoglobin, R.B.C., W.B.C., TLC, DLC, ESR count. 5. Blood indices, Blood grouping, Bleeding & Clotting time.|
DPT 102. BASIC OF PHARMACOLOGY, PATHOLOGY & MICROBIOLOGY PHARMACOLOGY THEORY
1. General Pharmacology: -
Introduction, Definitions, Classification of drugs, Sources of drugs, Routes of drug administration, - Distribution of drugs, Metabolism and Excretion of drugs, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, - Factors modifying drug response. - Elementry knowledge of drug toxicity, drug allergy, drug resistance, drug potency, efficacy & drug antagonism.
2. Autonomic Nervous system -
General considerations – The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems, Receptors, Somatic Nervous System - Cholinergic and Anti-Cholinergic drugs, Adrenergic and Adrenergic blocking drugs, Peripheral muscle relaxants.
3. Cardiovascular Pharmacology (in brief) -
Drugs Used in the Treatment of Heart Failure: Digitalis, Diuretics, Vasodilators, ACE inhibitors - Antihypertensive Drugs: Diuretics, Beta Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers, ACE Inhibitors, Central Acting Alpha Agonists, Peripheral Alpha Antagonists, Direct acting Vasodilators - Antiarrhythmic Drugs - Drugs Used in the Treatment of Vascular Disease and Tissue Ischemia: Vascular Disease, Hemostasis Lipid-Lowering agents, Antithrombotics, Anticoagulants and Thrombolytics - Ischemic Heart Disease – Nitrates, Beta-Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers - Cerebral Ischemia - Peripheral Vascular Disease
4. Neuropharmacology (in brief) : -
Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs: Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines - Antianxiety Drugs: Benzodiazepines, Other Anxiolytics - Drugs Used in Treatment of Mood Disorders: Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors, Tricyclic Antidepressants, Atypical Antidepressants, Lithium - Antipsychotic drugs
5. Disorders of Movement (in brief) : -
Drugs used in Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease - Antiepileptic Drugs - Spasticity and Skeletal Muscle Relaxants
6. Inflammatory/Immune Diseases- -
Non-narcotic Analgesics and Nonsteroidal Anti - Inflammatory Drugs: Acetaminophen, NSAIDs, Aspirin, Nonaspirin NSAIDs, drug Interactions with NSAIDs - Glucocorticoids: Pharmacological Uses of Glucocorticoids, adverse effects, Physiologic Use of Glucocorticoids - Drugs Used in Treatment of Arthritic Diseases: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Gout - Drugs Used in the Treatment of Neuromuscular Immune/Inflammatory Diseases: Myasthenia gravis, Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies, systemic lupus Erythmatosus, Scleroderma, Demyelinating Disease
7. Respiratory Pharmacology (in brief) :
Obstructive Airway Diseases, Drugs used in Treatment of Obstructive airway Diseases, Allergic Rhinitis
8. Digestion and Metabolism (in brief): -
Gastrointestinal Pharmacology: Peptic Ulcer Disease, Constipation, Diarrhea - Drugs Used in Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: Insulin, Oral Hypoglycemics
9. Geriatrics: - Pharmacology and the geriatric Population: Adverse effects of special concern in the Elderly, Dementia, Postural hypotension, urinary incontinence.
1. Introduction to Pathology
2. Cell injuries: - Aetiology and Pathogenesis with a brief recall of important aspects of normal cell structure. - Reversible cell injury: Types, Sequential changes, Cellular swellings, vacuolation, Hyaline changes, Mucoid changes. - Irreversible cell injury: Types of Necrosis & Gangrene, Autolysis. - Pathologic calcification: Dystrophic and Metastatic. Intracellular Accumulations.
3. Inflammation and Repair
- Acute inflammation: features, causes, vascular and cellular events, Inflammatory cells and Mediators. - Chronic inflammation: Causes, Types, Classification nonspecific and granulomatous with examples. - Repair, Wound healing by primary and secondary union, factors promoting and delaying the process. Healing in specific site including bone healing.
4. Circulatory Distrurbances
- Hyperemia/Ischemia and Haemorrhage - Edema: Pathogenesis and types. - Chronic venous congestion: Lung, Liver, Spleen, Systemic Pathology - Thrombosis and Embolism: Formation, Fate and Effects. - Infarction: Types, Common sites. - Shock: Pathogenesis, types, morphologic changes.
5. Growth Disturbances and Neoplasia
- Atrophy, Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Aplasia, Hypoplasia, dysplasia. Precancerous lesions. - Neoplasia: Definition, classification, Biological behaviour: Benign and Malignant (brief idea), Carcinoma and Sarcoma.
- Constituents of blood and bone marrow, Regulation of hematopoiesis.
- Anemia: Classification, clinical features & lab diagnosis (brief idea). - Hemostatic disorders, Vascular and Platelet disorders & lab diagnosis. - Coagulopathies - (i) Inherited (ii) Acquired with lab diagnosis. - Leukocytic disorders: Leukocytosis, Leukopenias, Leukemoid reaction. - Leukemia: Classification, clinical manifestation, pathology and Diagnosis (brief idea).
7. Respiratory System
- Pneumonia, Bronchitis, Bronchiectasis, Asthma, Tuberculosis, Carcinoma of lungs, Occupational lung diseases
8. Cardiovascular Pathology
- Congenital Heart diseases: Atrial septal defect, Ventricular septal defect, Fallot's tetralogy, Patent ductus arteriosu,. Endocarditis, Rheumatic Heart disease. - Vascular diseases: Atherosclerosis, Monckeberg's medial calcification. - Ischemic heart Disease: Myocardial infarction.
9. Hepato Biliary Pathology
- Jaundice: Types, aetiopathogenesis and diagnosis.
10. Musculoskeletal System
- Osteomyelitis: acute, chronic, tuberculous, mycetoma - Metabolic diseases: Rickets/ Osteomalacia, osteoporosis, Hyperparathyroidism, Paget's disease. - Tumours Classification: Benign, Malignant, Metastatic, and synovial sarcoma. - Arthritis: Suppurative, Rheumatoid. Osteoarthritis, Gout, Tuberculous.
11. Endocrine pathology
- Non-neoplastic lesions of Thyroid: Thyrotoxicosis, myxedema,
12. Neuropathology - Inflammations and Infections: TB Meningitis, Pyogenic Meningitis, viral meningitis, and Brain Abscess, Tuberculosis, Cysticercosis. 13. Dermatopathology: - Skin tumors: Squamous cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma, Melanoma (brief idea) 14. Congenital Myopathy & myasthenia gravis.
1. Collection of blood and anticoagulants used..
2. Discussion about parts of microscope and different types of microscopes used in pathology.
3. Staining of slide by Leishman method.
4. Study of peripheral blood smear.
5. Estimation of hemaglobin by Sahli's method and discussion of other methods used.
7. Identification of various instruments in pathology lab & their uses (eg. Neubar chamber, RBC, WBC, pipette etc.). 8. Bleeding Time, Clotting Time.
1. Introduction & History of Microbiology 2.Classification of microorganism : Bacterial Morphology, cells structure, difference between prokaryotes & eukaryotes, capsule, flagella, fimbrae, pilli, cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes etc.
3. Bacteriology - Classification of Bacteria, Morphological characteristics of different bacteria.
4. Bacterial growth/Reproduction : Growth curve
5. Sterilization & disinfection
a) Physical Methods b) Chemical Methods c) Mechanism of Sterilizations d) Difference between sterilization and disinfection.
6. Modes of transmission of diseases
a) Various routes of spread of infection. b) Hospital acquired infection. c) Bacterias responsible for nosocomial infectious
7. Bacterial diseases (in brief): Mycobacterial diseases: Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Syphilis. Bacterial disease: Pyogenic, Diphtheria, Gram negative infection, Bacillary,dysentery.
8. Viral diseases (in brief): Poliomyelitis, Herpes, Rabies, Measles, Rickttsia, Chlamydial infection, HIV infection. 9. Fungal diseases and opportunistic infections (in brief).
10. Food sanitation a) Hygiene in restaurants & kitchens. b) Health of food handlers & hygiene. c) Disease caused by infected food & water.
11. Immunity a) Active, passive b) Natural, acquired c) Antigen d) Antibody, type of antibodies e) Antigen antibody reactions. f) Mechanism of immunity g) Immunization.
12. AIDS - Aetiology, modes of transmission, diagnostic procedure.
13. Handling of infected material.
1. Preparation of smear.
2. Basic staining methods
3. Identification of bacteria on the basis of staining.
4. Basic knowledge of media and culture of bacteria.
5. Colony characteristics of common bacteria.
1. Introduction to exercise therapy
2. Mechanical principle applied in human body – gravity, centre of gravity, line of gravity, base of support, equilibrium, axis and planes
3. Disability models – ICIDH model of disability, Nagi model of disability, ICF model
4. Exercise physiology – effect of exercise in various systems – musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cardiovascular, respiratory system
6. Passive movements – definition, classification, indications, contraindications, advantages, limitations, techniques - emphasize PROM to upper, lower, neck and trunk muscles
7. Active movements - definition, classification, indications, contraindications, advantages, limitations, techniques - emphasize active movements to upper, lower, and neck and trunk muscles
8. Starting positions – muscle work, effect and uses and derived positions
9. Relaxation – definition, types of relaxation, relaxation techniques
10. Suspension – definition, types, uses and therapeutic applications
11. Balance – static and dynamic balance, mechanism of balance control, balancing exercises
12. Neuromuscular coordination – causes of in coordination, exercises to improve coordination – Frenkle exercise
13. Joint range measurement – Goniometer, types and techniques of measuring joint ROM
14. Measurement of limb length, girth
15. Manual muscle testing – grading system, techniques- emphasize on skill to grade upper, lower, neck and trunk muscles.
16. Mobility aids – crutches, canes, walker
17. Soft tissue manipulation (massage) – history, types, techniques, physiological effects, therapeutic uses, contraindications
1. Starting positions and derived positions
2. Range of motion (PROM, AROM, AAROM) exercises to all joints
3. Measurement of joint range using goniometer
4. General and local Relaxation techniques
5. Suspension exercise to all major joints
6. Massage – upper limb, lower limb, back, face
7. Manual muscle testing of individual muscles
8. Coordination exercises, balancing exercises
1. Basic components of electric current – electrons, protons, neutrons, ions, matter, molecules
2. Current electricity – static electricity, electric charge, conductors, conduction of electricity, resistance, factors effecting resistance with example in human body, insulation, unit of electric current – ampere, coulomb, volt, ohms law
3. Magnetism, theories of magnetism, properties of magnet.
4. Electromagnetic induction, electromagnetic radiation, laws governing radiations – Grouth’s law, cosine law, inverse square law, law of reflection, rarefaction.
5. Electrical components – transformer, capacitor, diode, valves
6. Types of electric current, wave forms, current modulation – continuous, burst, beat, surge. Electric circuit in parallel and series.
7. Safety issues while using electrical equipments – for patients and therapist
8. Muscle and nerve response to electrical stimulation – polarization, depolarization and propagation of impulse.
9. Pain – types of pain, pain pathway, theories of pain, Gate control theory of pain, pain modulation at various levels.
10. Low frequency currents:
a. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation – physiological effects, therapeutic uses of electrical stimulation techniques – electrodes type, electrode size, electrode placement, stimulating points, methods of reducing skin electrode resistance, contraindications and precautions.
b. High voltage pulsed stimulation.
c. Russian stimulation.
d. Trans cutaneous Electrical Nerve stimulation (TENS) – therapeutic uses of TENS, types, electrode placement in TENS, contraindications and precautions
e. Iontophoresis – mechanism, biophysical effect, medication dosage, medicated ions used, techniques of application.
11. Electro diagnostic test – FG test, strength duration curve, chronaxie, reobase
12. Interferential therapy (IFT) – physiological effects, therapeutic indications, methods of application, sweep, base, contraindication and precautions.
1. Identify basic electrical components in electrotherapeutic equipments.
2. Reading of medical records, indentifying indications and contraindications for electrotherapy.
3. Stimulation of motor points, stimulation of individual muscle and group muscle
4. Faradic foot bath, Faradism under pressure.
5. Plotting SD graph, diagnosis using electro diagnostic test – FG test and SD curve.
6. Placement of electrodes in TENS & IFT with dosimeter for various indications.
1. Mechanics - Definition of mechanics and Biomechanics
2. Motion: definition, types of motion, plane and axis of motion, factor determining the kind and modification of motion.
3. Force - Definition, diagrammatic representation of force, point of application, classification of forces, concurrent, coplanar and co-linear forces, composition and resolution of forces, angle of pulls of muscle
5. Gravity - Definition, line of gravity, Centre of gravity
6. Equilibrium - Supporting base, types, and equilibrium in static and dynamic state
7. Levers - Definition, function, classification and application of levers in physiotherapy & order of levers with example of lever in human body
8. Pulleys - system of pulleys, types and application
9. Elasticity - Definition, stress, strain, HOOKE’S Law
10. Springs - properties of springs, springs in series and parallel, elastic materials in use
11. Muscular system
12. Definition, properties of muscle, muscular contraction, structural classification, action of muscle in moving bone, direction of pull, angle of pull, functional classification, coordination of muscular system.
13. Joint structures and functions:
i. Joint design, Structure of Connective Tissue, Properties of Connective Tissue, joint function, changes with disease, injury, immobilization, exercise, over use
ii. Structure and functions of upper extremity joints – shoulder complex, elbow complex, wrist and hand complex
iii. Structure and functions of lower extremity joints – hip joint, knee joint, ankle and foot complex
iv. Structure and functions of axial skeletal joints – vertebral column – craniocervical, thorax, lumbar, lumbo pelvic region
v. Structure and functions of tempromandibular joint
14. Posture – dynamic and static posture, kinetic and kinematics of posture, analysis of posture, effect of age, pregnancy, occupation on posture.
15. Gait – kinematics and kinetics of gait, gait in running and stair climbing.
1. Goniometry – measurement of joint ROM
2. Identify Muscle work of various movements in body at different angle.
3. Identify normal and abnormal posture.
4. Normal gait with it parameters and identify abnormal gait with the problems in it.
1. Basics of computer
2. Hardware and software
2. Input and output devices
3. Operating system – DOS, etc
4. InternetEmail, social networking, application in medicine, browsing journals and article using internet
1. Nutrition: RDA, BMR, SDA, caloric requirement and balanced diet.
2. Carbohydrates: Definition, classification and general functions. Carbohydrate Metabolism - Glycolysis, T.C.A cycle.
3. Lipids: Definition, classifications and general functions. Essential fatty acids and their importance, Cholesterol, Lipoproteins. Metabolism - Oxidation of fatty acids, fatty liver and ketosis.
4. Amino Acids : Definition, classification, essential and non essential aminoacids.
5. Proteins: Definition, classification, and Bio-medical Importance. Metabolism: Formation and fate of ammonia, Urea cycle and its significance.
6. Study of hemoglobin and myoglobin with their functions.
7. Enzymes: Definition, classification with examples, Factors affecting enzyme action, isoenzyme and co-enzyme, Clinical importance of enzymes.
8. Biochemistry of connective tissue - Introduction, various connective tissue proteins : collagen, elastin- structure and associated disorders.
9. Vitamins: Definition, classification and functions, dietary source, daily requirement and deficiency disorders.
10. Diabetes mellitus - definition, types & causes.
1. Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base disturbances – Diagnosis and management ; Nutrition in the surgical patient., Shock - Clinical feature, pathology & management.
2. Transfusion therapy in surgery – blood components, complications of transfusion.
3. Wounds :
a) Classification, acute wounds, chronic wounds.
b) Wound healing – Basic process involved in wound repair, basic phases in the healing process, clinical management of wounds, factors affecting wound healing, scars - type and treatment.
c) Wound Infections, - physiology & manifestation, types of infections, treatment, principle of antimicrobial treatment.
4. Pre & postoperative complications of surgery and their management.
5. Hemostasis – Components, hemostatic disorders, factors affecting bleeding during surgery.
6. Types of anaesthesia and its affects on the patient, pain relief.
7. Types of Incisons; Clips Ligatures and Sutures; General Thoracic Procedures, Radiologic Diagnostic procedures, Endoscopy–types, Biopsy – uses and types. Overview and Drainage systems and tubes used in Surgery.
8. Burn: Definition, Classification, Causes, Prevention, Pathological changes, Complications, Clinical Features and Management.
9. Skin Grafts : Types, Grafting Procedures, Survival of Skin Graft ; Flaps – Types and uses of Flaps.
10. Infections and injuries of Hand : Hand infection, suppurativve infection, other infection, hand injuries, dupuytrens contracture.
11. Surgical Oncology – Cancer – Definition, types, clinical manifestations of cancer, Staging of Cancer, surgical
procedures involved in the management of cancer.
12. Disorders of muslces, tendons and ligaments, sports related injuries. Periarticular inflammations acte muslce injury, chronic muscles injury, Tendon disorders, tendon sheath disorder, fascia, Ganglia, Bursae, Repeatative strain injury.
13. Neurological disorder affecting to musclo-skeletal system. , Motor dysfunction and treatment, cerebral palsy, acquired abnormalities, inherited disorder, neuromuscular disorder, sensory disorder.
14. The cranium : The scalp, the skull, head injuries.
15. Thoracic and cardiac surgery : Thoracotomy, lobectomy, pneumonectomy, thoracoplasty, mitral valvotomy, open heart surgery.
16. Various surgical heart diseases with respect to clinical presentation, complications and management - Valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease –e.g., ASD, VSD, PDA, Ischaemic heart disease. Outline of postoperative complications in cardiac surgery and their management.
17. Diseases of the Arteries and Veins : Definition, Etiology, Clinical features, signs and symptoms, complications, management and treatment of following diseases : Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Aneurysm, Buerger’s disease, Raynaud’s Disease, Thrombophlebitis, Deep Vein Thrombosis, Pulmonary Embolism, Varicose Veins.
18. Definition, Indication, Incision, Physiological changes and Complications following Common operations like Cholecystectomy, Colostomy, Ileostomy, Gastrectomy, Hernias, Appendicectomy Mastectomy, Nephrectomy, Prostectomy.
ENT: Common problems of ear, otitis media, Otosclerosis, functional aphonia and deafness, facial palsy - classification, medical and surgical management of lower motor neuron type of facial palsy.
OPHTHALMOLOGY: common inflammation and other infections of eye, ptosis, defects of the external rectus, cataract, refractions, pleoptic exercises, physiologic defects of vision.
OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY : Surgical procedures involving child birth. Incontinence – Types, Causes, Assessment and Management, Common gynecology disorders - salpingitis, parameteritis, retroverted uterus prolapse of uterus, pelvic inflammation, Definition & indications of– Hysterosalphingography, Dilatation and Curettage, Laproscopy, Colposopy, & Hysterectomy.
1. Health and Disease: Definitions, Concepts, Dimensions and Indicators of Health, Concept of well-being, Spectrum and Determinants of Health, Concept and natural history of Disease, Concepts of disease control and prevention, Modes of Intervention, Population Medicine, The role of socio-economic and cultural environment in health and disease.
2. Epidemiology, definition and scope. Principles of Epidemiology and Epidemiological methods: Components and Aims, Basic measurements, Methods, Uses of epidemiology, Infectious disease epidemiology, Dynamics and modes of disease transmission, Host defenses and Immunizing agents, Hazards of Immunization, Disease prevention and control, Disinfection. Screening for Disease: Concept of screening, Aims and Objectives, Uses and types of screening.
3. Epidemiology of communicable disease: Respiratory infections, Intestinal infections, Arthropodborne infections, Zoonoses, Surface infections, Hospital acquired infections Epidemiology ochronic non-communicable diseases and conditions: Cardio vascular diseases: Coronary heart disease, Hypertension, Stroke, Rheumatic heart disease, Cancer, Diabetes, Obesity, Blindness Accidents and Injuries.
4. Public health administration- an overview of the health administration set up at Central and state levels. The national health program-highlighting the role of social, economic and cultural factors in the implementation of the national programs. Health problems of vulnerable groups- pregnant and lactating women, infants and pre-school children, occupational groups.
5. Health programs in India: Vector borne disease control program, National leprosy eradication program, National tuberculosis program, National AIDS control program, National program for control of blindness, Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) program, Universal Immunisation program, Reproductive and child health program, National cancer control program, National mental health program.
National diabetes control program, National family welfare program, National sanitation and water supply program, Minimum needs program.
6. Demography and Family Planning: Demographic cycle, Fertility, Family planning objectives of national family planning program and family planning methods, A general idea of advantage and disadvantages of the methods.
7. Preventive Medicine in Obstetrics, Paediatrics and Geriatrics: MCH problems, Antenatal, Intranatal and post natal care, Care of children, Child health problems, Rights of child and National policy for children, MCH services and indicators of MCH care, Social welfare program for women and children, Preventive medicine and geriatrics.
8. Nutrition and Health: Classification of foods, Nutritional profiles of principal foods, Nutritional problems in public health, Community nutrition program.
9. Environment and Health: Components of environment, Water and air pollution and public health: Pollution control, Disposal of waste, Medical entomology.
10. Hospital waste management: Sources of hospital waste, Health hazards, Waste management.
11. Disaster Management: Natural and man made disasters, Disaster impact and response, Relief phase, Epidemiologic surveillance and disease control, Nutrition, Rehabilitation, Disaster preparedness.
12. Occupational Health: Occupational environment, Occupational hazards, Occupational diseases, Prevention of occupational diseases. Social security and other measures for the protection from occupational hazard accidents and diseases. Details of compensation acts.
13. Mental Health: Characteristics of a mentally healthy person, Types of mental illness, Causes of mental ill health, Prevention, Mental health services, Alcohol and drug dependence. Emphasis on community aspects of mental health.
14. Health Education: Concepts, aims and objectives, Approaches to health education, Models of health education, Contents of health education, Principles of health education, Practice of health education.
1. Normal Growth and development of child : Motor, mental, language and social
2. Common infectious diseases in children: Brief description of following infectious diseases along with outline of
management: Tetanus, diphtheria, Mycobacterial, measles, chicken pox, gastroenteritis, HIV, and Malaria
3. Immunization programmes: WHO schedule, different vaccinations, rationale; special consideration to various disease eradication programmes like Pulse-Polio
4. Child and nutrition : Nutritional requirements, malnutrition syndrome, Vitamins (A, B, C, D & K) and Minerals (iron, calcium phosphorus, iodine) deficiencies in children and management in brief
5. Clinical presentation, management & prevention of the following : Cerebral palsy, Poliomyelitis, Muscular dystrophy
6. Childhood rheumatism : Types, clinical presentation, & management in brief
7. Acute CNS infections: Clinical presentation, complications and management of bacterial and tubercular infections in brief
8. Clinical presentation, management & prevention of the following respiratory conditions: URI, LRI, bronchiolitis, asthma, TB.
9. Clinical presentation, management & prevention of the following cardiac conditions: Rheumatic heart disease, SABE, Congenital heart disease - ASD, VSD, PDA
1. Modalities of psychiatric treatment
2. Psychiatric illness and physical therapy link
3. Brief description of Etio-pathogenesis, manifestations, and management of psychiatric illnesses -
a. Anxiety neurosis
c. Obsessive compulsive neurosis
d. Psychosis- Définition & types
e. Maniac-depressive psychosis
f. Post-traumatic stress disorder
g. Psychosomatic reactions: Stress and Health, theories of Stress – Illness Link
4. Brief description of Etio-pathogenesis, manifestations, and management of psychiatric illness
a. Drug dependence and alcoholism
b. Somatoform and Dissociate Disorders – conversion reactions, Somatization, Dissociate Amnesia, and Dissociate Fugue
c. Personality disorders
5. Child psychiatry: Brief descriptions of manifestations, and management of childhood disorders - attention deficit syndrome, and behavioral disorders
6. Geriatric Psychiatry (in brief)
1. PT assessment for Orthopedic conditions - SOAP format. Subjective - history taking, informed consent, personal, past, medical and socioeconomic history, chief complaints, history of present illness. Pain assessment- intensity, character, aggravating and relieving factors, site and location. Objective- on observation - body built swelling, muscle atrophy, deformities, posture and gait. On palpation- tenderness-grades, muscle spasm, swelling-methods of swelling assessment, bony prominences, soft tissue texture and integrity, warmth and vasomotor disturbances. On examination – ROM – active and passive, resisted isometric tests, limb length-apparent, true and segmental, girth measurement, muscle length testing-tightness, Contracture and flexibility, manual muscle testing, peripheral neurological examination dermatomes, myotomes and reflexes, special tests and functional tests. Prescription of home program. Documentation of case records, and follows up.
2. Fractures - types, classification, signs and symptoms, complications. Fracture healing – factors affecting fracture healing. Principles of fracture management - reduction - open and closed, immobilization - sling, cast, brace, slab, traction - manual, mechanical, skin, skeletal, lumbar and Cervical traction, external fixation, functional cast bracing. PT management in complications - early and late - shock, compartmental syndrome, VIC, fat embolism, delayed and mal union, RSD, myositis ossificans, AVN, pressure sores etc. Physiotherapy assessment in fracture cases. Aims of PT management in fracture cases - short and long term goals. Principles of PT management in fractures - Guidelines for fracture treatment during period of immobilization and guidelines for treatment after immobilization period.
3. Specific fractures and dislocations: PT assessment and management of upper limb fractures and dislocations. PT assessment and management of lower limb fractures and dislocations including pelvis. PT assessment and management spinal fractures.
4. Principles of various schools of thought in manual therapy – Maitland, Mackenzie, Mulligan
5. Degenerative and inflammatory conditions: Definition, signs and symptoms, clinical features, path physiology, radiological features, deformities, medical, surgical management. Describe the PT assessment and management and home program for the following conditions – Osteoarthritis - emphasis mainly on knee, hip and hand, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ankylosing spondylitis, Gout, Perthes disease, Periarthritic shoulder.
6. Infective conditions: Definition, signs and symptoms, clinical features, pathophysiology, radiological features, medical, surgical management. Describe PT assessment and management for following conditions – Osteomyelitis – acute and chronic, Septic arthritis, Pyogenic arthritis, TB spine and major joints - knee and hip.
7. Define; review the postural abnormalities of spinal column, clinical features, deformities, medical and surgical management. Describe PT assessment and management and home program.
8. Deformities: Review in detail the causes, signs and symptoms, radiological features, medical and surgical management. Describe the PT. assessment and management of the following conditions : Congenital : CTEV, CDH, Torticollis, pes planus, pes cavus and other common deformities. Acquired: scoliosis, kyphosis, coxa vera, genu varum, valgum and recurvatum.
9. Poliomyelitis: Definition, etiology, types, pathophysiology, clinical features, deformities, medical and surgical management. PT. assessment and management after surgical corrections and reconstructive surgeries - emphasis on tendon transfer and home program.
10. Leprosy: Definition, cause, clinical features, medical and surgical management. PT assessment, aims, and management after surgical procedures such as tendon transfer both pre and post operatively.
11. Amputations: Definition, levels, indications, types, PT assessment, aims, management pre and post operatively. PT management with emphasis on stump care and bandaging. Pre and post prosthetic training, checking out prosthesis, complications of amputations and its management.
12. Spinal conditions: Review the causes, signs and symptoms, investigations, radiological features, neurological signs. PT assessment, aims, and management and home program of the following conditions: Cervical spondylosis, Lumbar spondylosis, Spondylolisthesis, Spinal canal stenosis, Spondylolysis, Sacro-iliac joint dysfunction, Sacralisation, Lumbarisation, Intervertebral disc prolapse, Coccydynia, Spina bifida occulta.
13. Osteoporosis : Causes, predisposing factors, investigations and treatment.
14. Orthopedic surgeries: Pre and post operative PT assessment, goals, precautions and PT management of following surgeries such as: Arthrodesis, Osteotomy, Arthroplasty-partial and total- Excision arthroplasty, excision arthroplasty with implant, interpositional arthroplasty and total replacement; Tendon transplant, Soft tissue releasetenotomy, myotomy, lengthening; Arthroscopy, Spinal stabilization, Reattachment of limbs, External fixators, Synovectomy.
15. Shoulder joint: Shoulder instabilities, TOS, RSD, Impingement syndrome – conservative and Post operative PT management. Total shoulder replacement and Hemi replacement. - Post operative PT management. AC joint injuries - rehabilitation. Rotator cuff tears- conservative and surgical repair. Subacromial decompression - Post operative PT management.
16. Elbow and forearm: Excision of radial head - Post operative PT management. Total elbow arthroplastyPost operative PT management.
17. Wrist and Hand: Total wrist arthroplasty. Repair of ruptured extensor tendons. Carpal tunnel syndrome. Flexor and extensor tendon lacerations - Post operative PT management.
18. Hip: Joint surgeries- hemi and total hip replacement - Post operative PT management Tendonitis and bursitis. - Management.
19. Knee: Lateral retinacular release, chondroplasty- Post operative management. Realignment of extensor mechanism. ACL and PCL reconstruction surgeries - Post operative rehabilitation. Meniscectomy and meniscal repair - Post operative management. Plica syndrome, patellar dysfunction and Hoffa's syndrome - conservative management. TKR- rehabilitation protocol. Patellar tendon ruptures and Patellectomy- rehabilitation.
20. Ankle and foot: Ankle instability. Ligamentous tears- Post operative management.
1. Practical demonstration of basic principles of physiotherapy assessment, functional assessment and application of physiotherapy in orthopeadics conditions.
2. Student must maintain a logbook. The duly completed logbook should be submitted during practical examination.
ORTHOTICS AND PROSTHOTICS
1. Introduction to surgical anatomy and various pathological deviations with respect to brace fitting.
2. Rationale of prescribing Prosthetic and Orthotic devices.
3. Types of Prosthetic and Orthotic devices: Spinal, Lower limb, and Upper limb.
4. Checkout, usage advice, precautions, and follow-up.
5. Walking aids and wheel chairs: prescription, usage advice, and follow-up.
1. Demonstration of methods of using orthotics & prosthotics devices.
2. Methods of organization of community based rehabilitation centres.
3. Visit of different rehabilitation centres and preparing a report of the visit & vivavoce of the aforesaid report.
1) Review of basic Neuro - Anatomy and Physiology
2) Physiotherapy evaluation of a neurological patient, electro diagnostic procedures, interpretations and prognosis in different neurological conditions, Upper and Lower motor neuron lesions.
3) Principles of physiotherapy programs, reeducation and retraining techniques in neurological conditions, approaches like: Bobath’s / neuro developmental therapy, Rood’s approach, PNF, Vojta techniques, biofeedback, Brunnstorm movement therapy, Motor Relearning programming, sensory integration therapy.
4) Disturbance of speech and aphasia
5) Spinal cord injury: review of anatomy and physiology, Physiotherapy Assessment of Spinal cord injury, Principles of Physiotherapy at various stages of Spinal cord injury Rehabilitation goals and ADL training
6) Assessment and principles of therapeutic management of following neurological conditions:
• Stroke, meningitis, encephalitis, Parkinson’s disease, Cerebral palsy, cerebellar lesions, Brain tumors, Multiple Sclerosis, facial palsy.
• Motor neuron disease, Disseminated sclerosis, transverse myelitis, polio, syringomyelia, spina bifida,
• Neuropathies, neuromuscular junction disorders and myopathies
7) Peripheral nerve injuries, surgical resection & repair:
• Classification & types
• Functional assessment, investigation, diagnosis & prognosis
• Physiotherapeutic management
• Poly neuropathy
8) Traumatic brain injury:
• Types and Mechanisms of head injury
• Clinical features, potential complications
• Physiotherapy principles of immediate and postoperative therapeutic management
Post surgical Physical therapy in neurosurgical procedures – craniotomy, shunts, SOL resection, surgical treatment of spasticity, cervical cord decompression.
1. Practical demonstration of basic principles of physiotherapy assessment, functional assessment and application of physiotherapy in neurology conditions.
2. Student must maintain a logbook. The duly completed logbook should be submitted during practical examination.
1. Introduction of Rehabilitation & History
2. Epidemiology of disability (Impairment, disability, phases of disability process, etc.).
3. Principles of Rehabilitation & concept of team approach with rolls of each individual participant.
4. Organization of Rehabilitation unit.
5. Disability prevention evaluation & principles of Rehabilitation Management.
6. Role of Physiotherapy in Rehabilitation (Preventive, treatment & restoration)
7. Brief outline of Communication disorder & its implications on Rehabilitation process.
8. Brief outline of psychosocial & vocational aspects of Rehabilitation.
9. Introduction to Occupational therapy.
10. Activities of daily living, functional assessment & training for functional independence.
11. Brief outline of basic community medicine with special reference to community based Rehabilitation, infrastructure and role of CBR
12. Assessment of disability in rural & urban setups. Health care delivery system & preventive measures with specific reference to disabling conditions. Community education program.
13. Application of Physiotherapy skills at community level with special reference to the need at rural level.
14. Role of voluntary Organizations in CBR: Charitable Organizations, Voluntary health agencies – National level and International NGO’s, Multilateral and Bilateral agencies. International Health Organizations: WHO, UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA, FAO, ILO, World bank, USAID, SIDA, DANIDA, Rockfeller, Ford foundation, CARE, RED CROSS.
15. National District Level Rehabilitation Program: Primary rehabilitation unit, Regional training center, District rehabilitation center, Primary Health center, Village rehabilitation worker, Anganwadi worker.
16. Role of Physiotherapy in CBR: Screening for disabilities, Prescribing exercise program, Prescribing and devising low cost locally available assistive aids, Modifications physical and architectural barriers for disabled, Disability prevention, Strategies to improve ADL, Rehabilitation program for various neuro-musculoskeletal and cardiothoracic disabilities.
1. Pre-exercise evaluation
2. Diet and nutrition : Measurement of fitness components and sports skills - Measurement of muscular strength, Measurement of muscular endurance, Measurement of flexibility, Determination exercise endurance,
3. Physiological effects of exercise on body systems - Muscular system, Endocrine system, Cardio-respiratory system, Nervous system
4. Sports injuries - Spine – PIVD, Kissing spine, cervical whiplash injuries, facet joint syndrome, SI joint dysfunction, Hip – muscle strain, piriformis syndrome, ITB syndrome, osteitis pubis, Knee – menisci, cruciate, collateral, osteochondritis, chondromalacia patellae, biceps femoris tendonitis, swimmers knee, patello-femoral pain syndrome, Leg & ankle – shin splint, achillis tendonitis & rupture, TA bursitis, ankle sprain, plantar fascitis, turf toe syndrome, Head & face – maxillofacial injuries, helmet compression syndrome.
5. Sports injuries : Shoulder – instability, rotator cuff injury, biceps tendonitis and rupture, pectoralis major rupture, scapular dyskinesis and acromio-clavicular joint injuries, Elbow – tennis elbow, golfer’s elbow, Wrist and hand – carpal tunnel syndrome, gamekeeper’s thumb.
6. Principles of injury prevention.
7. Principles of training & Rehabilitation in sports injuries.
8. Sports in Special age groups: Female athletic triad, Younger athlete - Musculoskeletal problems, management, children with chronic illness and nutrition. Older athlete- Physiological changes with aging, benefits, risks of exercise in elderly, exercise prescription guidelines for elderly.
1. Practical demonstration of basic principles of physiotherapy assessment, functional assessment and application of sports physiotherapy
2. Student must maintain a logbook. The duly completed logbook should be submitted during practical examination.
1. Anatomical and Physiological differences between the Adult and Pediatric lung.
2. Bedside assessment of the patient-Adult & Pediatric.
3. Investigations and tests – Exercise tolerance Testing – Cardiac & Pulmonary, Radiography, PFT, ABG, ECG, Hematological and Biochemical Tests
4. Physiotherapy techniques to increase lung volume – controlled mobilization, positioning, breathing exercises, Neurophysiological Facilitation of Respiration, Mechanical aids - Incentive Spirometry, CPAP, IPPB
5. Physiotherapy techniques to decrease the work of breathing – Measures to optimize the balance between energy supply and demand, positioning, Breathing re-education – Breathing control techniques, mechanical aids – IPPB, CPAP, BiPAP
6. Physiotherapy techniques to clear secretions – Hydration, Humidification & Nebulisation, Mobilisation and Breathing exercises, Postural Drainage, Manual techniques – Percussion, Vibration and Shaking, Rib Springing, ACBT, Autogenic Drainage, Mechanical Aids – PEP, Flutter, IPPB, Facilitation of Cough and Huff, Nasopharyngeal Suctioning
7. Drug therapy – Drugs to prevent and treat inflammation, Drugs to treat Bronchospasm, Drugs to treat Breathlessness, Drugs to help sputum clearance, Drugs to inhibit coughing, Drugs to improve ventilation, Drugs to reduce pulmonary hypertension, Drug delivery doses, Inhaled Nebulisers.
8. Management of wound ulcers- Care of ulcers and wounds - Care of surgical scarsU.V.R and other electro therapeutics for healing of wounds, prevention of Hypergranulated Scars Keoloids, Electrotherapeutics measures for relief of pain during mobilization of scars tissues
9. Physiotherapy in dermatology -Documentation of assessment, treatment and follow up skin conditions. U.V.R therapy in various skin conditions; Vitiligo; Hair loss; Pigmentation; Infected wounds ulcers. Faradic foot bath for Hyperhydrosis. Care of anesthetic hand and foot; Evaluation, planning and management of leprosy- prescription, fitting and training with prosthetic and orthotic devices.
10. Neonatal and Pediatric Physiotherapy – Chest physiotherapy for children, The neonatal unit, Modifications of chest physiotherapy for specific neonatal disorders, Emergencies in the neonatal unit.
11. Physiotherapy in Obstructive lung conditions
12. Physiotherapy in Restrictive lung conditions.
13. Management of breathlessness.
14. Pulmonary Rehabilitation.
15. Physiotherapy following Lung surgeries.
16. Respiratory failure – Oxygen Therapy and Mechanical Ventilation. Introduction to ICU : ICU monitoring –Apparatus, Airways and Tubes used in the ICU -Physiotherapy in the ICU – Common conditions in the ICU – Tetanus, Head Injury, Lung Disease, Pulmonary Oedema, Multiple Organ Failure, Neuromuscular Disease, Smoke Inhalation, Poisoning, Aspiration, Near Drowning, ARDS, Shock; Dealing with an Emergency Situation in the ICU.
17. Burns management - Role of physiotherapy in the management of burns, post grafted cases- Mobilization and Musculo-skeletal restorative exercises following burns.
18. Physiotherapy management following cardiac surgeries.
19. Cardiac Rehabilitation.
20. Physiotherapy management following Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD).
21. Abdominal Surgeries - Management of Pulmonary Restorative Dysfunction following surgical procedures on Abdomen and Thorax.
22. Management of Amputations following Diabetes, PVD - Prosthesis in amputations of lower limbs following ulcers and gangrenes
23. Physiotherapy intervention in the management of Medical, Surgical and Radiation Oncology Cases
24. Home program and education of family members in patient care.
25. Physiotherapy in Obstetrics – Antenatal Care, Antenatal Education, Postnatal Care. Electrotherapy and Exercise Therapy measures for the re-education of Ano-Urethral sphincter.
26. Treatment, Response to exercise and Implications of Physiotherapy in the following disease conditions: Hypertension, Diabetes, Renal Failure and Obesity.
27. Geriatrics: Problems in old age, role of physiotherapy in elderly
1. Practical demonstration of basic principles of physiotherapy assessment, functional assessment and application of physiotherapy in cardio – respiratory, OBG, Skin, and other medical conditions.
2. Student must maintain a logbook. The duly completed logbook should be submitted during practical examination.
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